Solution of the three-carrier problem: A natural explanation for surprising observations

D. Poetzsch, R. Merkle, and J. Maier

The complex kinetics of stoichiometry changes in materials with three mobile carriers is analyzed and the "three-carrier problem" solved in the framework of linear irreversible thermodynamics. Numerical simulations predict and verify the experimentally observed decoupled hydrogen and oxygen diffusion in mixed conducting oxides upon an increase of water partial pressure. This ansatz supplies the tools to naturally explain non-monotonicities, apparent uphill diffusion and "moving boundary phenomena" in three carrier systems.

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