Room temperature large-scale synthesis of layered frameworks as low-cost 4 V cathode materials for lithium ion batteries
Lithium-ion batteries (LIBs) are one of the most popular types of rechargeable batteries as they show high energy density, small memory effect, and only a slow loss of charge when not in use. Therefore they are the batteries of choice for electric vehicle (EVs) which are considered as the most environmental-friendly means of transportation in the near future. Nevertheless, large scale production of EVs is hindered mainly by the high cost of current (LIBs) and by safety requirements. Therefore it is mandatory to develop lower cost LIBs with high energy density and good operational safety. Sine more than 40% of the total cost of LIBs account for the cathode materials, research should primarily focus on low cost replacements of cathode materials. In an attempt to produce cheaper high-performance cathode materials for LIBs, an rGO/MOPOF (reduced graphene oxide/Metal-Organic Phosphate Open Framework) nanocomposite with ~4 V of operation has been developed by a cost effective room temperature synthesis that eliminates any expensive post-synthetic treatments at high temperature under Ar/Ar-H2. Enhanced lithium cycling has been witnessed with rGO/MOPOF nanocomposite which exhibits minimal capacity fading thanks to increased electronic conductivity and enhanced Li diffusivity. The crystal structure of the new cathode material could be determined from in-situ high resolution laboratory X-ray powder diffraction data.