Nanofabrication involves the realization of devices incorporating various kinds of nanostructures. This is performed either using electron beam or direct-write lithography. In the first approach a standard two layer PMMA resist system is utilized to obtain electrodes with widths as low as 50 nm. Direct write lithography is carried out using a modified confocal laser scanning microscope. This technique is utilized to obtain electrode structures with sub-micron widths. In order to obtain devices various nanostructures such as carbon nanotubes, graphene and inorganic nanowires are contacted utilizing these electrode structures. Towards this end, the nanostructures are deposited on to Si/SiO2 or glass substrates from solution before the electrode patterning procedure. As an exception, graphene is directly transferred from graphite crystals or from CVD-grown graphene (copper). In some cases the patterning of graphene after the fabrication of the device is necessary. For this purpose, either nanowire masks are utilized or a maskless direct-write procedure is deployed. In this case the uncovered graphene areas are removed by oxygen plasma treatment or reactive ion etching. The various fabrication stages are carried out in state-of-the-art clean room facilities available in-house. The devices fabricated in this manner are utilized for a range of quantum electronic transport measurements as well as for the realization of nano-bio interfaces .

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