Discovering the Vehicle Mechanism of Proton Conductivity

The diffusion of protons as part of protonated molecules (e.g. H3O+) together with the diffusion of uncharged molecules (vehicles) allow for the net-transport of  protons (vehicle-mechanism). As opposed to structure diffusion (Grotthuß-mechanism, proton hopping), this mechanism corresponds to the most common case of proton conduction, especially in aqueous systems.

K.-D. Kreuer, A. Rabenau, and W. Weppner 
Vehicle Mechanism, A New Model for the Interpretation of the Conductivity of Fast Proton Conductors 
Angewandte Chemie International Edition 21(3), 208–209 (1982). 
DOI: 10.1002/anie.198202082

K. D. Kreuer, A. Rabenau, and R. Messer 
Proton Conductivity in the Layer Compound H3O UO2 AsO4 3H2O. II Conductivity in the Tetragonal High Temperature Phase 
Applied Physics A: Materials Science & Processing 32, 155–158 (1983). 
DOI: 10.1007/BF00616611

K. D. Kreuer, W. Weppner, and A. Rabenau 
Investigation of Proton-Conducting Solids 
Solid State Ionics 3–4, 353–358 (1981). 
DOI: 10.1016/0167-2738(81)90112-0

K. D. Kreuer and A. Rabenau 
Protonenleitung im Uranospinit HUO2AsO4 4H2
Fortschritte der Mineralogie 59(1), 102–103 (1981).

K. D. Kreuer, W. Weppner, and A. Rabenau 
Proton Conduction in Zeolites 
Materials Research Bulletin 17, 501–509 (1982). 
DOI: 10.1016/0025-5408(82)90106-4

K. D. Kreuer, I. Stoll, and A. Rabenau 
Proton Conductivity of H3OUO2 AsO4 3H2O (HUAs) under Pressure Indication for Transition from Vehicle Mechanism to Grotthuss Mechanism 
Solid State Ionics 9–10(Part 2), 1061–10645 (1983). 
DOI: 10.1016/0167-2738(83)90131-5

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