Unfolding the Complex Relations between Morphology, Viscoeleastic Properties, Hydration Behavior and (Proton, Water) Transport in Poly-Electrolytes and Ionomers such as NAFION®
The weak structural correlation of hydrated acidic poly-electrolytes and ionomers is driven by residual electrostatic interactions leading to “locally flat” morphologies. It is also constrained by the formation of polymeric aggregates with their ionic groups concentrating at their surface.
K.-D. Kreuer, Th. Dippel, and J. Maier
Membrane Materials for PEM-Fuel-Cells: A Microstructural Approach
In Proton Conducting Membrane Fuel Cells I, A. R. Landgrebe, S. Gottesfeld, and G. Halpert, eds., Vol. PV 95-23, The Electrochemical Society, Pennington, NJ, 1995, pages 241–246.
K. D. Kreuer, M. Schuster, B. Obliers, O. Diat, U. Traub, A. Fuchs, U. Klock, S. J. Paddison, and J. Maier
Short-side-chain proton conducting perfluorosulfonic acid ionomers: Why they perform better in PEM fuel cells
Journal of Power Sources 178(2), 499–509 (2008).
K. D. Kreuer
On the Development of Proton Conducting Polymer Membranes for Hydrogen and Methanol Fuel Cells
Journal of Membrane Science 185(1), 29–39 (2001).
K.-D. Kreuer and G. Portale
A Critical Revision of the Nano-Morphology of Proton Conducting Ionomers and Polyelectrolytes for Fuel Cell Applications
Advanced Functional Materials 23(43), 5390–5397 (2013).
The role of internal pressure for the hydration and transport properties of ionomers and polyelectrolytes
Solid State Ionics 252, 93–101 (2013).
J.-P. Melchior, T. Bräuniger, A. Wohlfarth, G. Portale, and K.-D. Kreuer
About the Interactions Controlling Nafion’s Viscoelastic Properties and Morphology
Macromolecules 48(23), 8534–8545 (2015).